VALENTINE M. MOGHADAM
Director, Women's Studies Program
Associate Professor of Sociology
Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4260
Tel.: (309) 438-2947 Fax: (309) 438-5104
Ph.D. Sociology, 1986, The American University, Washington, D.C.
M.A. Sociology, 1982, The American University, Washington, D.C.
B.A. Political Science and History, 1978, Univ.
of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
SPECIALIZATIONS AND RESEARCH
Sociology of gender, comparative development, social change,
sociology and political economy of the Middle East and North Africa, Afghanistan,
women and the economies in transition.
August 1996 - . Director of Women's Studies and Associate
Professor of Sociology, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, 61790,
USA. (On leave, Fall 1996.)
Jan. - August 1996. Independent Scholar and Consultant
(1) January 1996, for ESCAP. Travel to Hanoi and
preparation of two commissioned papers, on women and transition economies,
and recommendations on women workers in Indochina. (2) Feb.-June
1996, for UNRISD. Commissioned paper on social development and public policies
in Viet Nam. Presentation of findings at a joint UNRISD/CIDA/IDRC Seminar
on Economic Reform and Social Policies, Ottawa, 30-31 May. (3) April
1996, for UNDP. Preparation of a paper on promoting women's urban employment
through appropriate social policies in developing countries, and participation
at the Marmaris (Turkey) Roundtable. (4) May, 1996, for UNDP. Preparation
of background paper on economic reform and women's employment in the Middle
East and North Africa, and participation at the Seminar on Gender and Human
Development in the Arab Region, Tunis. (5) May-July 1996, for UNU/WIDER.
Completion of edited volume on Transitions and Gender in the Former
Socialist World: Market Reforms, Women, and Work. (6) June-Sept.
1996, for UNDP. Commissioned paper on the Feminization of Poverty; background
paper for the Human Development Report 1997. (7) August-Sept.
1996, for the UN Division for the Advancement of Women, Preparation of
a Model Action Plan for the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for
Action, and participation in the Symposium on Central and Eastern Europe
after Beijing, Bucharest, 12-14 September, 1996. (8) Fall
1996, Fellow, Council of American Overseas Research Centers. Fieldwork
in Turkey and Jordan (15 Sept.-15 Nov.), and completion of first draft
of a book on economic reform and women's employment in the Middle East
and North Africa.
1/1990-12/95 Senior Research Fellow (L5, Step VIII), UNU/WIDER (Helsinki, Finland),
and Coordinator of Research Programme on Women and Development.
Responsible for design and coordination of two large-scale WID research
projects, with international collaborators, planning meetings, commissioned
papers, research conferences, and publications; also served as Principal
Investigator. 1990-93 project: National Development, Identity Politics, and
Concepts of Feminism. 1994-95 project: Global Restructuring and Working
Women in Industrializing Countries and Transition Economies
Fall 1992 Visiting Senior Lecturer, Inst. of Development Studies and Women's Studies, Univ.
of Helsinki. Graduate Seminar: Women and Social Change
in the Middle East.
Fall 1990 Visiting Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Women's Studies, Institute of
Development Studies, University of Helsinki. Graduate Seminar: Women, Islam
and Social Change.
Fall 1989 Visiting Assistant Professor, Program in Middle East Studies, Rutgers University,
New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Undergraduate Courses: Introduction to the Modem
Middle East; Critical Perspectives on the Middle East.
1988-1989 Post-doctoral Fellow, Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women,
. Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Research Project: Revolution, the State,
Islam and Women: A Comparative Analysis of Gender Politics in Iran and
1985-1988 Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, New York University, NY,
USA. Undergraduate and graduate courses: Social Change; Sociology of.
Developing Countries; Women and Development; Introduction to Sociology;
Sociology of Gender.
1980-1982 Teaching Assistant, Department of Sociology, The American University,
Washington, D.C. Course: Introduction to Sociology.
Gendering Economic Reform: Women and Structural Change
in the Middle East and North Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers,
Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the
Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1993. (A Choice
Outstanding Academic Book for 1993-1994.) Also published by The American
University of Cairo Press (1994). Third printing, 1996.
Patriarchy and Economic Development: Women's Positions
at the End of the Twentieth Century. Editor and Contributor. Oxford:
Clarendon Press/OUP, 1996.
Democratic Reform and the Position of Women in Transitional
Economies. Editor and Contributor. Oxford: Clarendon Press/OUP, 1993.
Identity Politics and Women: Cultural Reassertions
and Feminisms in International Perspective. Editor and Contributor.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. Editor and Contributor. London: Zed Books, 1994.
Gender and Development in the Arab World: Women's Economic
Participation, Patterns and Policies (co-editor with Nabil Khoury,
and Contributor). London: Zed Books, 1995.
Transitions and Gender in Socialist Societies: Market
Reforms, Women, and Work (Editor and Contributor, under review).
Journal Articles and Book Chapters (* denotes
*"Feminist Networks North and South: A Case Study
of DAWN, WIDE, and WLUML." In Journal of International Communication,
special issue on International Feminism(s), vol.3, no. 1 (July 1996):
* "The Fourth World Conference on Women: Dissension
and Consensus." In Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Vol. 3,
No. 1 (1996): 93-102. Also published in Alam-e Niswan: Pakistan Journal
of Women's Studies, vol. 2, no. 2 (1995): 59-66.
*"A Reply to Maley". World Development, Vol.
24, No. 1 (Jan. 1996): 207-211.
*"Women's Employment Issues in Contemporary Iran:
Problems and Prospects in the 1990s." In Iranian Studies (Vol.
28, Nos. 3-4, 1995): 175-202.
*"Patriarchy and Post-Communism: Eastern Europe and
the Former Soviet Union", and "Development Strategies, State
Policies, and the Status of Women: A Comparative Assessment of Iran, Turkey
and Tunisia", in V. M. Moghadam, ed., Patriarchy and Economic Development
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).
"Making History But Not of Their Own Choosing: The
Labor Movement in Iran". In E. Goldberg, ed., A Social History
of Labor in the Middle East (Westview Press, 1996), pp. 65-97.
"Nye Tendenser i Kons-og Udviklingsforskningen"
(new trends in gender-and-development research). In GRUS, University
of Arhus, Denmark, vol. 47 (December 1995).
*'Women, Revolution, and National Identity in the Middle
East". In Rita S. Gallin, Anne Ferguson, and Janice Harper, eds.,
The Women and International Development Annual, vol. 4 (Westview
Press, 1995), pp. 119-145.
*"Gender and Revolutionary Transformation: Iran 1979
and East Central Europe 1989". In Gender & Society Vol.
9, no. 3 (June 1995): 328-358.
*"Restructuration economique, politiques identitaires
et rapports sociaux de sexe en Europe centrale de l'est et au Moyen-onent-Afrique
du Nord". In Recherches feministes (Montreal), vol.
8, no. 1, (1995): 35-49.
"Gender Aspects of Employment and Unemployment in
a Global Perspective." In Global Employment: An International Investigation
into the Future of Work, edited by Mihaly Simai, with Valentine
M. Moghadam and Arvo Kuddo (London and Tokyo: Zed Books and UNU Press,
1995), pp. 111-139.
"Market Reforms and Women's Economic Status: Eastern
Europe, Russia, Vietnam and China." Development (Special Issue
Prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women), no. 1 (1995): 61-66.
"A Political Economy of Women's Employment in the
Arab Region." In N. Khoury and V.M. Moghadam, eds., Gender and
National Development (London: Zed Books, 1995), pp. 6-34.
V. M. Moghadam
"Gender Dynamics of Restructuring in the Semiperiphery".
In Rae Lesser Blumberg, Cathy Rakowski, Irene Tinker, and Michael Monteon,
eds., EnGendering Wealth and Well-being (Boulder, CO: Westview Press,
1995), pp. 17-38.
*"Islamic Populism, Class, and Gender in Post-Revolutionary
Iran." In John F. Foran, ed., A Century of Revolution: Social Movements
in Iran (University of Minnesota Press), 189-222.
"Women in Societies". International Social
Science Journal, 139 (February 1994), pp. 94-115. Special Issue on
Sociology: State of the Art. Published for UNESCO by Blackwell.
*"Building Human Resources and Women's Capabilities
in Afghanistan: A Retrospect and Prospects." World Development
(22) (6), June 1994, 859-876.
"Gender Inequality in the Islamic Republic of Iran:
A Socio-Demography". In Myron Weiner and Ali Banuazizi, eds., The
State and Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Syracuse,
NY: Syracuse University Press), pp. 390-411.
*"Revolution, Islamist Reaction, and Women in Afghanistan",
in Women and Revolution in Africa, Asia, and the New World, edited
by Mary Ann Tetreault (University of South Carolina Press), pp. 211-235.
*"Revolutions and Regimes: Populism and Social Transformation
in Iran." In Philo Wasburn, ed., Research in Political Sociology,
vol. 6, pp. 217-255.
"Bringing the Third World In: A Comparative Analysis
of Gender and Restructuring in Third World Industrializing Countries and
State Socialist Societies". In Democratic Reforms and the Position
of Women m Transitional Economies, edited by V. M. Moghadam
(Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press), pp. 327-351.
*"Rhetorics and Rights of Identity in Islamist Movements."
Journal of World History (vol. 4, 1993): 243-266.
'Women, Employment and Social Change in the Middle East
and North Africa." In Hilda Kahne and Janet Z. Giele, eds., Women's
Work, Women's Lives: The Continuing Struggle Worldwide (Boulder, CO:
Westview Press), pp. 87-116.
*"Development and Women's Emancipation: Is There
A Connection?" Development and Change, vol. 23 no. 3 (July),
*"Patriarchy and the Politics of Gender in Modernizing
Societies: Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan." International Sociology,
vol. 7, no. 1 (March), pp. 35-53.
"Revolution, Islam and Women: Sexual Politics in
Iran and Afghanistan." In A. Parker, M. Russo, D. Sommer, P.
Yaeger, eds., Nationalisms and Sexualities (New York and
London: Routledge), pp. 424-445.
*"Islamist Movements and Women's Responses in the
Middle East." Gender & History, vol. 3, no. 3 (Autumn):
*"The Reproduction of Gender Inequality in Muslim
Societies: A Case Study of Iran in the 1980s." World Development
vol. 19, no. 10 (October), pp. 1335-1349.
"The Neopatriarchal State in the Middle East: Development,
Authoritarianism and Crisis." In Haim Bresheeth and Nira Yuval-Davis,
eds., The Gulf War and The New World Order (London: Zed Books),
*"The Critical and Sociological Approach in Middle
East Studies: A Review Essay." Critical Sociology vol. 17,
no. 1 (Spring 1990), pp. 111-124.
"Populist Revolution and the Islamic State in Iran."
In Terry Boswell, ed., Revolution in the World System. Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press (1989), pp. 147-163.
"Against Eurocentrism and Nativism: A Review Essay
on Samir Amin's Eurocentrism and Other Texts." Socialism
and Democracy (Graduate Center, CUNY), No. 9 (1989), 81-104.
"One Revolution or Two? The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic." In Ralph Miliband, Leo Panitch and John Saville, eds. Revolution Today: Aspirations and Realities. Socialist Register 1989. London: Merlin.
"Populism, Islam and the State m Iran." Social Compass 36, 4 (December 1989), pp. 415-450.
*"Women, Work and Ideology in the Islamic Republic."
International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 20 (May 1988),
"Industrialization Strategy and Labor's Response:
The Case of the Workers' Councils in Iran." In Roger Southall, ed.,
Trade Unions and the New Industrialization of the Third World. London
and Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press and Zed Books (1988), pp. 182-209.
*"Oil, the State and Limits to Autonomy: The Iranian
Case." Arab Studies Quarterly, 10, 2 (Spring 1988), pp. 225-238.
*"Industrial Development, Culture and Working Class
Politics: Tabriz Industrial Workers in the Iranian Revolution." International
Sociology, 2, 2 (June 1987), pp. 151-175.
"Socialism or Anti-Imperialism? The Left and Revolution
in Iran." New Left Review, 166, pp. 5-28.
"Feminism and Islam." Socialist Review, 79
(Spring 1985) pp. 131-139.
"Iran: The International Wild Card." Diplomatic
Pouch (The American University, School of International Service), 25,
1 (Spring 1984) pp. 27-39.
*"Iran: Development, Revolution and the Problem of
Analysis." The Review of Radical Political Economics, 16, 3/4
(Summer/Fall 1984) pp. 227-240.
Forthcoming Articles in Books and Journals
*"Revolutions", in The Women's Studies Encyclopedia,
Cheris Kramarae and Dale Spender, General Editors (Harvester Wheatsheaf,
*"The UN Decade for Women." In Nelly Stromquist,
editor, The Encyclopedia of Third World Women (Garland Publishing,
New York, 1997).
*"Gender and Revolutions." In John Foran, ed., Theorizing Revolutions (Routledge, 1997).
*"Gender and the Global Economy", in Revisioning
Gender, edited by Judith Lorber, Myra Marx Feree, and Beth Hess
* "Population, Urbanization, and the Challenges of
Unemployment and Poverty." In Understanding the Middle East, edited
by Deborah Gerner (Lynne Rienner, 1997).
Working/Occasional Papers/In-House Publications
"The Feminization of Poverty? Notes on a Concept
and Trends." Illinois State University Women's Studies Program, Occasional
Papers, No. 2 (August 1997).
Economic Reforms, Women's Employment, and Social Policies:
Case Studies of China, Vietnam, Egypt, and Cuba. Helsinki: UNU/WIDER
World Development Study Series (August 1995).
"Manufacturing and Women in the Middle East and North
Africa: A Case Study of the Textiles and Garments Industry." University
of Durham, Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, Occasional Paper
No. 49 (June 1995).
"Market Reforms and Women Workers in Vietnam: A Case
Study of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City." UNU/WIDER Working Paper no.
116 (July 1994).
"Social Protection and Women Workers in Asia."
UNU/WIDER Working Paper no 110 (June 1993).
"Gender and the Development Process in a Changing
Global Environment." UNU/WIDER Research for Action Series (July 1993).
"Development and Patriarchy: The Middle East in Economic
and Demographic Transition." WIDER Working Paper no. 99 (July 1992).
"Women's Employment in the Middle East and North
Africa: The Role of Gender, Class, and State Policies." Working Paper
no. 229, Michigan State University, Women and International Development
Program (June 1992).
"Privatization and Democratization in Central
and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: The Gender Dimension".
Helsinki: WIDER Research For Action Series (January 1992).
"Gender, Development and Policy: Toward Equity and
Empowerment." Helsinki: WIDER Research for Action Series (November
"Gender and Restructuring: Perestroika, the 1989
Revolutions, and Women." WIDER Working Paper no. 87 (November
Women and Work in Post-Revolutionary Iran."
Occasional Paper Series, Office of Women in International Development,
Michigan State University, East Lansing (1988).
Comparative National Development: Society and Economy
in the New Global Order, edited by A. Douglas Kinkaid and Alejandro
Portes, and Hidden in the Home: The Role of Waged Homework in the Modem
World-Economy, by Jamie Faricella Dangler. Reviewed for Contemporary
Sociology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (Sept. 1996): 639-642.
Muslim Politics, by Dale Eickelman and James Piscatori.
Reviewed for Contemporary Sociology, vol. 26, no. 3 (May 1997):
The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, by Barnett Rubin,
and Collapsed States, edited by I. William Zartmann. Reviewed
for Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 25, No. 6 (Nov. 1996): 736-738.
Iran and the Muslim World: Resistance and Revolutions,
by Nikki R. Keddie. Reviewed for MESA Bulletin 30 (1996): 108-109.
After Khomeini: The Iranian Second Republic, by
Anoushirvan Ehtishami. Reviewed for CIRA Bulletin, Vol. 12, No.
1 (Fall 1996).
Bartered Brides: Politics, Gender and Marriage in an
Afghan Tribal Society, by Nancy Tapper. Reviewed for The Middle
East Women's Studies Review vol. XI, No. 1, March 1996.
The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements
in Global Perspective, edited by Amrita Basu. Reviewed for The
Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 55. no. 1 (1996): 122-124.
Manpower Policies and Development in the Persian Gulf
Region, by Robert E. Looney. Reviewed for The Middle East Studies
Association Bulletin, No. 29 (1995), pp. 220-21.
Islam and Modernization: A Comparative Analysis of
Pakistan, Egypt, and Turkey, by Javaid Saeed. Reviewed for The Middle
East Studies Association Bulletin, No. 29 (1995), pp. 213-14.
Privatization and Liberalization in the Middle East,
edited by Ilya Hank and Dennis Sullivan. Reviewed for MESA
Bulletin, vol. 28, 1994.
Irangeles: Iranians in Los Angeles, edited by
Ron Kelley, Jonathan Friedlander, Anita Colby. Reviewed for Iranian
Studies, Vol. 27, Nos. 1-4 (1994), pp. 204-206.
Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic, by
Ervand Abrahamian. Reviewed for CIRA Newsletter (1994).
Three Women of Herat, by Victoria Doubleday, and
Women in the City of the Dead, by Helen Watson. Reviewed for Newsletter
of the Association for Middle East Women's Studies (May 1993), pp. 1-5.
Iranian Immigrants and Refugees in Norway. Reviewed
for Iranian Studies XXVI, 1-2 (Winter-Spring 1993), pp. 185-187.
Revolution and Economic Transition: The Iranian Experience,
by Hooshang Amirahmadi. Reviewed for International Journal of Urban
and Regional Research, vol. 16, no. 3 (September 1992): 497-499.
Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, edited
by Asghar Fathi. Reviewed for Middle East Studies Association Bulletin,
vol. 26 (1992), pp. 82-83.
Working Women: International Perspectives on Labour and Gender Ideology, edited by
Nanneke Redclift and M. Thea Sinclair. Reviewed for Contemporary
Sociology, vol. 21, no. 2 (May 1992), p. 186.
The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution, by M. Milani, and Insurgency Through Culture and Revolution, by M. Salehi. Reviewed for Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 513 (Jan. 1991), pp. 170-171.
We Were Making History: Women and the Telangana Uprising,
by Stree Shakti Sanghatana. Reviewed for Development and Change
(Institute of Social Studies, The Hague), vol. 22, no. 2 (April
1991), pp. 405-406.
The Women of Azua: Work and the Family in the Rural
Dominican Republic, by Barbara Finlay. Reviewed for Contemporary
Sociology, vol. 20, no. 2 (March 1991), pp. 189-190.
The Tragedy of Afghanistan, by Raja Anwar. Reviewed
for Against The Current 27 (July-August, 1990).
The State and Ideology in the Middle East and Pakistan,
by Fred Halliday and Hamza Alavi, eds. Reviewed for South Asia Bulletin,
Vol. IX, no. 1 (1989), pp. 74-77.
Iran Under the Ayatollahs, by Dilip Hiro. Reviewed
for CIRA Newsletter (Center for Iranian Research and Analysis),
4, 3 (Winter 1989), pp. 6-7.
The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in
Iran, by Said Amir Arjomand. Reviewed for CIRA Newsletter, 5,
1 (Spring/Summer 1989), pp. 8-10.
The Three Worlds: Culture and World Development, by
Peter Worsley. Reviewed for Monthly Review, 40, 1 (January 1988),
The World Revolution of Westernization, by Theodore
von Laue. Reviewed for Monthly Review, 49, 7 (December 1988), pp.
Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World, by
Kumari Jayawardena. Reviewed for Monthly Review 39, 4 (September
1987), pp. 53-56.
The Left in Contemporary Iran, by Sepehr Zabih.
Reviewed for Iranian Studies, vol. 20, no. 1 (1987), pp. 105-107.
The Political Environment of Planning in Iran, 1962-1983,
by H. Razavi and F. Vakil. Reviewed for Third World Quarterly, 8,
4 (October 1986), pp. 1467-1468.
Labor Unions and Autocracy in Iran by H. Ladjevardi,
and Labour Unions, Law and Conditions in Iran, by W. Floor. Reviewed
for Labour, Capital and Society (Montreal), (November 1986), pp.
The Government of God: Iran's Islamic Republic, by
Zalmay Khalizad and Cheryl Bernard. Reviewed for Middle East Studies
Association Bulletin 19, 1 (July 1985), pp. 82-84.
Economic Origins of the Iranian Revolution, by
Robert Looney. Reviewed for Iranian Studies, 18 (Winter 1984), pp.
Notes, Briefs, and Solicited Abstracts (Partial
"Arab Regional Symposium on Gender and Human
Development, Tunis, May 1996" and "Beijing and Beyond: Review
of Conference". Middle East Women's Studies Review, Vol. XI,
No. 3 (Sept. 1996).
"Divergence and Consensus: The Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing." Middle East Women's Studies Review (November 1995).
"Economic Restructuring and Women in the Labour Force."
WIDER Angle (Dec. 1995).
"Women's Industrial Employment in the Middle East
and North Africa." Forum: Newsletter of the Economic Research Forum
for the Arab Countries, Iran & Turkey, vol. 2, no. 2 (July/August
1995), pp. 28-29.
"Economic Restructuring and Women's Employment: Focus
on the Middle East and North Africa." C1RA Bulletin, Vol. 11,
No. 1 (Fall 1995), pp. 24-26.
"Rhetorics and Rights of Identity in Islamist Movements".
Sociological Abstracts, 1993.
"Gender and Culture in the Middle East." The
Open University, Correspondence Course and Text U208: Third World Development
"The Neopatriarchal State in the Middle East: Development,
Authoritarianism, and Crisis." International Political Science
Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts (1992)
"Gender and Restructuring". Newsletter of Association
for Women in Development vol. 5, no. 4 (December 1991).
"Identity Politics and Women." AMEWS Newsletter
(Association for Middle East Women's Studies), March 1991, p. 2.
"Economic Reform - or the Bourgeois Revolution -
in Eastern Europe." PEWS News, Spring 1990, pp. 2-5.
"Development, Disarmament and Democratization in
the Middle East: Problems and Prospects." PEWS News (Fall 1990).
"Comment on Brubaker." States and Social
Structures Newsletter, no. 11, Fall 1989, p. 4.
"Against Eurocentrism and Nativism: A Review Essay
on Samir Amm's Eurocentrism and Other Texts." Sociological
"Oil, the State, and Limits to Autonomy: the Iranian
Case." International Political Science Abstracts (1988).
"Feminism and its Discontents." AMEWS News,
vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1986), p. 3.
"Toward the Internationalization and Integration of Middle East Women's Studies." AMEWS News, 2, 2 (June 1986), p. 5.
INVITED LECTURES (a partial list)
"Identity Politics and Women." University of
Maryland, College Park, Women's Studies Program/Curriculum Transformation
Project. 25 June 1997.
"Globalization and Women's Responses: The Rise of
Women's NGOs in the Middle East and North Africa." Fifth Annual Women
in Development Conference, University of Pittsburgh, 14-16 March, 1997.
"The Feminization of Poverty around the World." American Association of University Women, Bloomington-Normal chapter, 8 March 1997.
"The Beijing Conference and Afterwards." Women's
History Month, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, 3
"Promoting Women's Participation in Urban Employment:
The Debate on Social Policies for Working Women." Fourth UNDP Roundtable
on Global Change, Marmaris, Turkey, 17-21 April 1996.
"Gender and Development: Past Accomplishments, Future
Challenges." UNU Public Lectures, UN, New York, 22 March 1996.
"Modernizing Women/Women Modernizing the Middle East."
Seminar on Women, Culture, and Modernity, Carsten Niebuhr Institute of
Near Eastern Studies, University of Copenhagen, 19-20 February 1996.
"Economic Liberalization and Women's Employment in
the Middle East and North Africa." UNDP, New York (5 December 1995).
"Women, Education and Development in the Middle East
and North Africa: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century." National
Union of Finnish Students, Helsinki (24 November 1995).
'"Women's NGOs in the Middle East and North Africa:
Opportunities, Constraints, and Priorities." Centre for Cross-Cultural
Research on Women, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, England
(23-24 June 1995).
"The United Nations and the Advancement of Women."
Conference on The United Nations at Fifty. Hofstra University, Hempstead,
LI (17-18 March 1995).
"Feminist Networks in Europe and the Mediterranean
: A Case Study of Women in Development Europe and Women Living Under
Muslim Laws". Conference on Social Networks in Europe and the
Mediterranean, University of Tampere (6-7 June 1995).
"WID/WAD/GAD: Integrating Women, Women's Concerns,
and Gender Issues in the Development Process." Workshop on Palestinian
Women in Society: State of Research and New Directions, Birzeit University,
the West Bank (25 November - 2 December 1994).
"Women in the Textiles and Garments Industry in the
Middle East and North Africa." Conference on Women in the Global Economy:
Making Connections, State University of New York, Albany (22-24 April 1994).
"Development Strategies, State Policies, and Women's
Status: Iran, Turkey, Tunisia". Princeton University, Center of International
Studies (10 November 1993).
"Labor and the Workers Councils in Iran, 1978-1983".
University of Washington, Seattle, Jackson School of International Studies
(18 November 1993).
"Gender and Revolutionary Transformation: Iran 1979
and Eastern Europe 1989". Northeastern University, Women's Studies
Program (9 November 1993).
Visiting Scholar, Havens Center for the Study of Social
Structure and Social Change, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 25 October
- 5 November 1993. Lecture Series Title: "Gender, Development, and
Theory in a Changing Global Environment."
"Women and Development in the Muslim World: Issues and Trends", and "The Changing Status of Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran", University of Helsinki, Dept. of Social Anthropology (23, 30 Sept. 1993).
"Gender Dynamics of Restructuring in the Semi-Periphery."
Opening Plenary of the Conference Engendering Wealth and Well-Being, University
of California, San Diego (17-20 February 1993).
"The Middle East and North Africa in Economic and
Demographic Transition." Department of Sociology and the Middle East
Center, University of Utah (2 November 1992).
"The Political Economy of Women's Employment in the
Middle East and North Africa." Department of Economics, SOAS, University
of London (10 November 1992).
"Gender, Employment, and Social Protection: Problems
and Prospects for Women in Asia and in Eastern Europe." Inter-departmental
Seminar on Equality in Employment, International Labour Office, Geneva
(8 September 1992).
"Women and Restructuring in the Third World and Eastern
Europe". Mt Holyoke College, Northampton, MA, USA (4 December 1991).
"Gender and the Disciplines: Progress in Women's
Studies?"; "The State and Islamist Movements in the Middle East";
and "Engendering Democratization and Development". Guest lectures
at the University of Tampere, Finland (5-6 November 1991).
"Gender, Democratization, and Economic Reform: Findings
of the WIDER Project", Seminar on Transitions to Democracy in Central
and Eastern Europe, Subotica, Yugoslavia (24-26 October, 1991).
"Women and Social Change in the Middle East",
Center for the Comparative Study of Development, Brown University, Providence,
Rhode Island (21 October 1991).
Invitation to participate in the forum of the Pembroke
Center for Teaching and Research on Women, Brown University, Providence,
Rhode Island, during "The Centennial of Women at Brown." (19-20
"Women, the Family, and Social Change m the Middle
East." Seminar on The Family in Arab-Islamic Culture, University of
Joensuu, Finland (23-24 May 1991).
"Gender and Identity in Islamist Movements."
Conference on Rhetorics and Rights of Identity, Center for Historical Analysis,
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. (12-13 April 1991).
"Gender Inequality in Iran: A Socio-Demographic Assessment
of Women's Status in Pre- and Post-revolutionary Iran." International
Conference on Iran, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (8-10
"The Neopatriarchal State and Imperialism: Obstacles
to Democratization and Development in the Middle East." Plenary on
the Middle East Crisis, Socialist Scholars Conference, New York (6 April
"Women and Development: Issues and Policies for the
1990s." Fortieth Anniversary Conference of the War on Want: The War
on Poverty in a Changing World. London (23 March 1991).
"Development and Women's Emancipation." Workshop
on Rethinking Emancipation: Concepts of Liberation". Institute of
Social Studies, The Hague, Netherlands (30 Jan. - 1 Feb. 1991).
"Women, the State and Islam." Department of
Social Policy and Philosophy, University of Joensuu, Finland (15 October
"Women, Family and Development: Theoretical Perspectives." XIIth World Congress of Sociology, Pre-Congress Symposium on Women, Family and Development. Segovia, Spain (4-7 July 1990).
"Women, Employment, and Social Change in the Middle
East and North Africa." University of Helsinki, Institute of Development
Studies (26 April 1990).
"Social Policy, Macroeconomic Policy, and Gender:
Strategies for Women." UNU Panel, 1lth World Conf. of the World Futures
Studies Federation, Budapest (27-31 May 1990).
"Islam, Women, and Politics m Iran and Afghanistan."
Depts. of Political Science, Anthropology and Women's Studies, University
of Connecticut, Storrs (7 February 1990).
"Revolution and Gender." Department of Political Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario,
Canada (8 January 1990).
Participant, Seminar on The State and Restructuring of
Society in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan. Center for International Studies,
MIT (Spring 1989).
"The Woman Question in the Afghan Revolution."
Seminar on Politics in Afghanistan, Program in Middle East Studies, Rutgers
University (5 April 1989).
"The Institutionalization of Gender Inequality in
the Islamic Republic." Rhode Island College, 1989 Lecture Series on
The Middle East (27 April 1989).
"Women and Development in the Third World: Issues
and Debates." Conference on Capitalist Development and Women's Liberation,
Past and Present. Center for Social Theory and Comparative History, Center
for the Study of Women, UCLA (15 May 1989).
"Integrating Scholarship on Revolution and Gender:
Iran and Afghanistan as Case Studies." Women's Studies/Middle East
Center/Dept. of Anthropology Symposium, University of Pennsylvania (11
"Women in Post-Revolutionary Iran: Problems and Prospects."
Portland State University (5 March 1988).
"Underdevelopment, Inequality, and Islamic Movements
m the Middle East (with a Comparative Glance at Kosovo)." University
of Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (9 July 1988).
"Oil Revenues, War Economy, and State Formation in
the Islamic Republic." Conference on the Impact of Fluctuating Oil
Prices on State Autonomy in the Middle East, State University of New York,
Birmingham (21-22 April 1987).
"Political Islam m the Middle East: Nationalism or
Pan-Islamism?" Round Table on Multi-confessional and Multi-national
States, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (27 October 1987).
"The Iranian Revolution and Islamic Movements m the Middle East." Cavtat Round Table, Yugoslavia (22-25 October 1987).
PRESENTATIONS AT PROFESSIONAL
"Economic Liberalization, Women's Employment, and
Activism in the Middle East and North Africa." 7th Conference of the
Association for Women in Development (AWID), Washington, DC (5-8 September
"Towards a New Gender Contract? Liberalizing Economies and Modernizing Women in the Middle East and North Africa." Annual Conference of the American Political Science Assoc. (APSA), San Francisco, CA (28 August-1 Sept. 1996).
"Of Economics and Culture: Dissension and Consensus
Among Women Leaders at the FWCW." Annual meeting of the American Sociological
Association (ASA), New York (16-20 July 1996).
"In or Out? Iranian Women and the New Global Economy."
Annual conference of the Center for Iranian Research and Analysis (CIRA),
Coventry Business School, Coventry, England (28-30 March).
"Economic Liberalization and Women's Employment:
Egypt and Turkey." Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association
(MESA), Washington, DC (6-10 December 1995).
"Gender and Employment Issues in Contemporary Iran:
Problems and Prospects." MESA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona (17-21
"Global Restructuring, Identity Formation, and Gender:
Parallels and Contrasts in Eastern Europe and the Middle East." XIII
World Congress of Sociology, Bielefeld, Germany (18-23 July 1994). Presented
at Symposium No. 3: Old and New Forms of Solidarity and Identity, Session
2: Gender and Social Transformation.
(a) "To Be or Not To Be: Dilemmas of State-Building
in the Islamic Republic of Iran". (b) Discussant, Panel on Why Has
Iran Been Revolutionary? Annual Meeting of MESA, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina (11-14 November 1993).
(a) Discussant, Thematic Session on Women in Democratic
Transitions: Gender Shock. Co-Organizer and Presider, Panel on Gender and
Restructuring in Eastern Europe. ASA annual meeting, Miami Beach, Florida
"Islamism and Modernism: The Iranian Revolution."
MESA Annual meeting, Portland, OR (28-31 Oct. 1992).
"Gender and Restructuring in Eastern Europe and the
Third World." ASA annual meeting, Pittsburgh, PA (20-24 August 1992).
"Problems and Prospects of Democratization and Development
in the Middle East." MESA annual meeting, Washington DC (23-26 November
"Structural Determinants of Women's Employment in
the Middle East: Class, Gender and State Policy" and "Islamist
Movements and Women's Responses." ASA annual meeting, Cincinnati (23-27
"Employment Trends of Women in Contemporary Iran."
Panel on Economic and Social Trends in Contemporary Iran, Annual Conference
of the British Society for Middle East Studies (BRISMES), SOAS, University
of London (10-12 July 1991).
"Islamist Movements and Women's Responses."
Panel on Women and Political Change, International Conference of Political
Psychology, Helsinki (3-5 July 1991).
"Revolution Engendered? Notes on The Woman Question
in Revolutions." RC-32, Session on Women and Politics, XIIth World
Congress of Sociology, Madrid (9-13 July 1990).
"Political Islam and Islamic Populism in Iran: A Sociological Perspective." RC on Comparative Sociology, Session on Religion and Politics in Non-Western Societies, XIIth World Congress of Sociology, Madrid (9-13 July 1990).
"Gender Politics in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan."
Panel on Gender and the State in Islamic Societies, Berkshire Conference
on the History of Women, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (7-10 June
"Patriarchy and the Politics of Gender in Modernizing
Societies: Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan." International Interdisciplinary
Congress on Women, Hunter College-CUNY, NY, USA. (3-6 June 1990).
"Women's Experiences with Revolution and State-Building:
South Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan, Nicaragua." AWID Conference, Washington,
D.C. (November 1989).
"Causes, Course and Consequences of the Iranian Revolution."
ASA annual meeting, San Francisco (August 1989).
"Populist Revolution and the Islamic State in Iran."
Eastern Sociological Society annual meeting, Baltimore (17-19 March 1989).
"The Revolution and the Regime: Populism, Islam and
the State in Iran." PEWS 12th Annual Conference on "War and Revolution
in the World-System", Emory Univ., Atlanta GA (24-26 March 1988).
"Discussant, Panel on Informal Sector Female Employment
in Turkey. MESA annual meetings, Baltimore, MD (18 November 1987).
Labor Studies and the Labor Force in the Middle East."
MESA annual meeting, New Orleans (22-26 November 1986).
"Women and Work in the Middle East and North Africa."
ASA annual meeting, New York (August 1986).
"Islamic Populism and the Transitional State in Iran"
and "The Crisis of the Iranian Left." MESA annual meeting, San
Francisco (28 Nov.-1 Dec. 1985)
"The Workers' Councils in Iran." Conference
on Third World Trade Unionism: Equity and Democratisation in the Changing
International Division of Labour. University of Ottawa, Canada (25-27 October
CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS
1997 "Gender and Modernity". Spring semester weekly seminar series, Illinois State University, Normal
(with Dr. Mohamad Tavakoli).
1993 "Recent Developments in the Middle East and
Mediterranean Region" (with TAPRI
Institute), UNU/WIDER (29 September).
1992 "Trajectories of Patriarchy and Development".
UNU/WlDER (6-7 July).
1991 "Gender and Restructuring: Perestroika, the
1989 Revolutions, and Women".
UNU/WlDER (2-3 September).
1990 "Identity Politics and Women: Cross-National
Perspectives." UNU/WIDER, Helsinki
1982 First Annual Conference of the Center for
Iranian Research and Analysis, Washington,
D.C , The American University (2-3 April).
AWARDS, HONOURS, GRANTS
Council of American Overseas Research Centers, Fellowship
for Regional Research on "Economic Liberalization and Women's Employment
in Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey" (1996-97).
Visiting Fellowship, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies
1996-97 (declined with regrets).
IREX Short-Term Travel Grant, June 1993. Travel to Miami
for three Eastern European scholars to participate in an ASA conference,
and to present papers on economics and gender roles in Central and Eastern
Europe. Panel on Gender and Restructuring in Eastern
Europe: A Balance-Sheet and Prospects, organized by V. M. Moghadam.
Modernizing Women selected as a Choice Outstanding
Academic Book for 1993-94.
Listed in the International Who's Who of Women; the
International Who's Who of Professional and Business Women, 1993; and Contemporary
Fulbright, Indo-American Fellowship Program, Advanced
Research in India, 1990-91. Project: Research on the Women's Movement in
India in Comparative Perspective. (Declined with regrets.)
Post-doctoral Fellowship, Pembroke Center for Research
on Women, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 1988-89.
ACLS Travel Grant (to Yugoslavia), 1988.
RESEARCH TRAVEL AND FIELDWORK
Turkey (Istanbul and Ankara), and Jordan (Amman), Sept.-Nov.
1996. Data collection for finalization of book on economic liberalization
and women's employment in the Middle East and North Africa.
Hanoi, January 1996. Participation in an ESCAP workshop
on women and economic participation in Indochina, and interviews with officials
from the Viet Nam Women's Union, Center for Women's Studies, and Ministry
of Labor on social development in Viet Nam.
Egypt, January-February 1995. Fieldwork on the participation
of women in the economy and the economic reform process. Preparation of
a detailed report on the labor force from a gender perspective. Interviews,
collection and analysis of published materials, site visits.
Factory visits in Amman, Jordan, November 1994. Visits
to ACTICO - Arab Countries Co. for Textile Industry (hosiery manufacturer),
and Hikma Pharmaceuticals. Interviews with managers and women
employees, and acquisition of information on personnel policies.
Ankara and Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994: data-collection
for research project on economic restructuring, women's employment, and
social policies in industrializing and transitional economies. Extensive
interviews, site visits, observations.
Islamic Republic of Iran, May 1994: as above.
Kuala Lumpur, Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, February 1994:
Moscow, 26 February-6 March 1991: to gather information and data on new legislation pertaining to women, and to hold interviews with Soviet women academics and activists.
North Africa, November-December 1990: to study women's
legal status, social positions, and the impact of Islamic fundamentalism.
Interviews with feminist activists, women workers, legal experts, and government
officials. Acquisition of census data in Rabat, Algiers, Tunis.
Kabul, Afghanistan, February 1989: to assess the political
situation and to conduct interviews pertaining to the legal status and
social positions of women. Contact with the Women's Council.
Wash. DC and New York, Fall/Winter 1988: Interviews with
Iranian and Afghan women exiles, refugees and former activists on their
experiences and their views of gender.
Paris, Summer 1985: interviews with former activists on
their role in the Iranian Revolution.
Mexico City, Spring 1983: characteristics of formal and
informal sector industrial work (for dissertation research). Observation
of large plants and of workshops.
CONSULTANCIES AND UN
For the UN Division for the Advancement of Women: preparation
of a Model National Action Plan for the implementation of the Beijing Platform
for Action, Aug. - Sept. 1996.
For UNDP, Human Development Report Office: background
paper on the feminization of poverty (for the 1997 HDR), May-September
For UNRISD: Preparation of paper on Social Development
in Viet Nam (Feb.-May 1996).
For ESCAP: Preparation of paper on women and economic
transition and on working women in Indochina, for the Seminar on Promoting
Women's Participation in Economic Development, Hanoi, SRV, January 1996.
For OECD/DAC WlD Expert Group: Preparation of a briefing
paper on "Transition to the Market Economy and Implications for Women:
Research Findings for East Central Europe, Russia, China, Vietnam, and
Cuba." March 1995.
For USAID/Coopers & Lybrand: Team Leader, Mission
to Egypt for fieldwork stage of a proposed project, Participation of Women
in the Economy and Economic Reform (POWER), 12 January - 17 February 1995.
Preparation of a report on the Egyptian labor force from a gender perspective,
and a country study on the Egyptian economic reform, the legal and regulatory
framework, the labor force, women in small and medium-sized businesses,
and women's organizations.
UNRISD/UNDP: Participation in Advisory Workshop on the
UNRISD/UNDP Project: Technical Co-operation and Women's Lives - Integrating
Gender into Development Policy. Geneva, 7-8 December 1994.
ESCWA: Participation in the Arab Regional Preparatory
Meeting for the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995): Peace
for the Advancement of Arab Women. Amman, Jordan, 6-10 November 1994.
UNDP: Participation in the Roundtable on "Change:
Social Conflict or Harmony?" Stockholm, 22-24 July, 1994. Paper prepared:
"Market Reforms and Women's Economic Status: A Comparative Assessment
of Eastern Europe and Russia, and Vietnam and China."
North-South Institute, Ottawa: Participation in the Expert
Group Meeting on '"Women and Global Economic Restructuring",
Ottawa, 20-22 June, 1994.
ILO/IILS: Participation in the Forum on "Equality
for Women in the World of Work: Challenges for the Future", Geneva,
1-3 June, 1994.
ESCAP: Participation in Expert Group Meeting on women
in development, Bangkok, 8-11 February 1994, to prepare for the second
Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference on Women in Development (Jakarta,
7-14 June 1994). Written commentary on three background papers.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague, Netherlands: Participation
in Seminar on '"Women, Islam and Development", 13-15 September.
Preparation of overview paper: "Women and Development in the Muslim
World: A Comparative Assessment of Fertility, Education, Employment, and
For ILO: A Country Study of Azerbaijan (co-authored with
Nayereh Tohidi), within the framework of ILO's program of research, analysis,
and advisory services of countries in transition from centralized planning
to market-oriented economics, March-May 1993.
SIDA: Participation m a workshop organized by the Gender
Office of the Swedish International Development Authority, "Development
with a Gender Perspective in Muslim Societies", Stockholm, 25-27 April.
Delivery of two lectures on socio-economic causes of Islamic fundamentalism
and on gender and development in Afghanistan.
For FAO/UNDP/World Bank: An analysis of gender, labor
markets, and social/economic policy, within the framework of the joint
program on a Conceptual Framework for Social and Gender Analysis in Project
Formulation, Rome, 8 March - 9 April 1993.
For UNESCO: A study entitled '"Women in Societies",
for the UNESCO/Blackwell Series, The Social Sciences in the Contemporary
World, Volume I: Sociology. Sept.-Dec. 1992.
For ILO: A report (with Nancy Folbre) on gender bias in
existing social security programs, inter-departmental project on employment
equality. Preparation of a study, "Gender, Employment, and Social
Security: Problems and Prospects for Women in Asia", Geneva, August-September
UNU/WIDER: Participation in a planning meeting on WID
research program, UNU/WIDER, Helsinki, October 1989. Preparation of draft
three-year program of research.
For UNICEF/UNIFEM: Preparation of a paper on women, state
policies and socio-economic conditions in Afghanistan, and participation
in a seminar on Planning and Afghan Women, New York, August 1989.
Representative of UNU at: (1) Fifth Regional Conference of ECLAC on Integrating Women into the Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, 16-19 September 1991. Preparation of report. (2) United Nations inter-agency consultations in preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women 1995: Vienna, 11-12 December 1991, 9-10 March 1992, 12-16 November 1992, New York, 3-4 March 1994, 13-14 March 1995. Preparation of reports; collaboration on preparation of 1994 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development. (3) UN inter-agency consultations in preparation for the United Nations International Year of the Family 1994, and follow-up; Vienna, 5-6 March 1992; 10-12 March 1993, 22-23 May 1995. Preparation of position papers. (4) World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen 6-12 March 1995. (5) Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 September 1995.
Member: American Sociological Association; International
Sociological Association; American Political Science Association; Association
for Women in Development; Sociologists for Women in Society; Society for
International Development; Middle East Studies Association; British Society
for Middle Eastern Studies; Society for Iranian Studies; Center for Iranian
Research and Analysis; Association for Middle East Women's Studies; U.S.
Council for INSTRAW.
Reviewer: Gender & Society, World Development,
International Sociology, Contemporary Sociology, American Political Science
Review, Duke University Press, University of Florida Press, International
Journal of Middle East Studies, MESA Bulletin, SUNY Press, Iranian
Member, Editorial Board: Contemporary Sociology
(1994-97), South Asia Bulletin (1993-96), Comparative Studies
of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (1997 - ), Journal of
Global Governance (1994 - ), CIRA Bulletin (1997 - ), Women
and Development book series, joint publication of the United Nations Non-Governmental
Liaison Service (NGLS) and Zed Books (1992-94).
Other Editorial Works: (1) Provisional Editor, Newsletter
of RC32, Women in Society, International Sociological Association, 1990-91.
(2) Guest Editor, CIRA Newsletter, (The Center for Iranian Research and
Analysis), vol. 5, no. 2, Fall 1989. (3) Member of Editorial Group, AMEWS
News (Newsletter of the Association for Middle East Women's Studies), 1986-88.
(4) Co-editor, CIRA Newsletter, vol. 2, nos. 1-3, vol. 3, no. 1, 1985-87.
Member: Board of Directors, U.S. Council for INSTRAW
(1989-1990, 1991-1993, 1993-1995); Association for Middle East Women's
Studies (1993- ).
Member, 1997 Committee of the Malcolm H. Kerr Dissertation
Award in the Social Sciences, Middle East Studies Association of North
Jury Member, 1993, Second Worldwide Competition for Young
Sociologists, International Sociological Association.
Regional representative, Research Committee on Women in
Society (RC-32), International Sociological Association, 1992-1994.
Organizer, WIDER Seminar Series for 1992.
Thesis Adviser, Lata Osmani, "Credit, Employment,
and Women's Welfare: A Case Study of Bangladesh", Department of Economics,
University of Helsinki, 1992 - 1993.
Dissertation Reader/Oral Examiner: Occupational Commitment
and the Myth of Self-Employment Among Lagos Port and Dock Workers, by
Yahya Affimeh, Dept. of Sociology, New York University, December 1987.
Regular contacts and exchange of materials with WID offices
of UN agencies and regional commissions, as well as international NGOs,
women's organizations and women's studies centers in developing countries
"Afghan Fundamentalism Bodes Ill for Women",
Letter to the Editor, The New York Times, May 3, 1988, p. A34.
"Afghanistan: The Soviets Are All Gone, But the Sky
Still Refuses to Fall", Commentary, The Providence Journal, February
"The View from Kabul: Western Media Reports are Misleading",
The Guardian Y), March 22, 1989, pp. 10-11.
"Morale in Kabul High", Letter to the Editor,
The New York Times, April 18, 1989.
Born: Tehran, Iran; Sex: Female; Naturalized U.S. citizen.
Languages: English, Persian, French.
Leisure Activities: Swimming, jogging, cinema, theater,
Prof. Anita M. Weiss, International Studies, University
of Oregon, Eugene.
Prof. John Foran, Department of Sociology, University
of California, Santa Barbara.
Prof. Hooshang Amirahmadi, Chair and Graduate Director,
Planning & Policy Development Department, Director, Middle Eastern
Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Dr. Leena Kirjavainen, Director, Division of Women and
People's Participation in Development, Sustainable Development Department,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Fax:
(39-6) 522 53 152.